A Physical Therapist Explains How to Prevent Back Pain from Sitting at Your Desk

Sitting for a long time can cause back pain. Learn how to avoid back pain at work with ergonomic tips and gentle stretches from physical therapists.

Young man with pain in his back

A Physical Therapist Explains How to Prevent Back Pain from Sitting at Your Desk

Sitting for a long time can cause back pain. Learn how to avoid back pain at work with ergonomic tips and gentle stretches from physical therapists.

Young man with pain in his back

A Physical Therapist Explains How to Prevent Back Pain from Sitting at Your Desk

Sitting for a long time can cause back pain. Learn how to avoid back pain at work with ergonomic tips and gentle stretches from physical therapists.

Young man with pain in his back

A Physical Therapist Explains How to Prevent Back Pain from Sitting at Your Desk

Sitting for a long time can cause back pain. Learn how to avoid back pain at work with ergonomic tips and gentle stretches from physical therapists.

Young man with pain in his back
Table of Contents

Ever felt a little stiff, sore, or achy after a long day at your desk or during a marathon of meetings without enough time for stretch breaks? Join the back pain club. 

“The more you sit, the more likely you are to develop back pain,” explains Heather Broach, PT, DPT, a physical therapist at Hinge Health. Here’s why: Sitting in the same position for a long period of time means you’re not doing all the things that are really helpful for your back, like moving, stretching, and bending.

In fact, a 2021 study published in Health Promotion Perspectives found that prolonged sitting increased the risk of developing lower back pain by 42%.

But no matter what your work situation is, there’s a lot you can do to prevent back pain from a long day at your desk. Here’s what Hinge Health physical therapists recommend, including the best back pain exercises you can do during work.

Our Hinge Health Experts

Dr. Heather Broach, PT, DPT
Physical Therapist
Dr. Broach is a Hinge Health physical therapist who enjoys treating shoulder, low back, knee, and ankle issues.
Jonathan Lee, MD, MBA
Orthopedic Surgeon and Medical Reviewer
Dr. Lee is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon and an Associate Medical Director at Hinge Health.
Dylan Peterson, PT, DPT
Physical Therapist and Clinical Reviewer
Dr. Peterson is a Hinge Health physical therapist who focuses on developing clinical exercise therapy programs and member education.

What Causes Office Back Pain?

There are many reasons you may experience back pain from sitting at a desk all day. They include:

  • Sitting for prolonged periods. “Our bodies weren’t designed to sit at a desk for hours at a time,” says Dr. Broach. “When you don’t move around enough, your joints and tissues can get grumpy.”

  • Sitting position. Some of us sit in one position all day long, and that can cause pain. You want to have options for sitting (and standing), which gives different back muscles a break. Shift around from sitting very relaxed to sitting upright. And, of course, take breaks to stretch, stand, and walk. 

  • Office furniture. If your desk chair doesn’t provide good low back support, it can contribute to back pain. Another culprit: the position of your desk and/or computer monitor. If they’re not at the right height, it can put your neck in an awkward position and affect your back pain.

  • Health conditions. If you’re prone to low back pain (say, because of arthritis or sciatica), sitting at a desk for long periods can exacerbate it. Being overweight can also contribute to back pain. 

That said, having a health condition doesn’t mean you’re stuck with back pain at work. There’s a lot you can do to relieve back pain while sitting and feel better during your workday.

How to Prevent Back Pain When You Sit All Day

Hinge Health physical therapists discuss this issue with members a lot. (Truth time: It’s something our staff is working on too!) Try these tips:

Take short breaks. Penn State University researchers found that lower back pain from sitting could be relieved simply by switching positions every 15 minutes. Stand up and stretch or head to the kitchen for a water or coffee refill. If you have trouble remembering, set an alarm on your phone every 15 to 30 minutes.

If you have to stand in one place for a while, place a block of wood or exercise step on the floor and step up and down every few minutes. 

If getting up every 15 minutes feels impossible (say, you’re booked in hour-long meetings most of the day), try ending your meetings five to 10 minutes early and take that extra time to stretch.

Try a standing desk. Sit-stand workstations may reduce lower back pain among workers, according to a 2018 review of studies published in the journal Ergonomics. If you have a laptop, perch it on a kitchen countertop or tall filing cabinet for periodic changes of scenery (and position) during your workday.

Pay attention to your position. When you sit at your desk, this is a good place to start. Bend your knees at a right angle and keep them even with or slightly higher than your hips. Your feet should be flat on the floor, or flat on a footrest. If you have a wallet or cellphone in your pocket, remove it. This reduces extra pressure on your butt and low back. From there, don’t be afraid to adjust to find what works for you. There’s no one-size-fits-all answer for how to sit. 

Stay active when you’re off the clock. If you sit at a desk all day, make time for activity outside of your job, says Dr. Broach. A 2018 review of studies published in the American Journal of Epidemiology found that regular exercise two to three times a week reduced the risk of a bout of lower back pain by 33%. 

Ergonomic Sitting: What Does That Mean?

There are ways to arrange your workstation to make your 9-to-5 life more comfortable and reduce risk of lower back pain from sitting.

  • Set your computer screen at eye level. This way, you don’t have to constantly look up or down.

  • Use an ergonomic chair. The backrest should support the natural curve of your lower back. Adjust the armrests so they just slightly lift your shoulders.

  • Try using headphones or a bluetooth headset when you’re on the phone. You’ll be able to move more freely and change positions. And it may be easier to type and talk without straining your neck or shoulders.

  • Move your keyboard. It should be at a height where your elbows are bent at about 90 degrees.

What Else Can Help with Back Pain from Sitting at a Desk?

In addition to taking frequent breaks, getting exercise outside of work, and doing gentle stretches for a healthy back (see below), these tips can help relieve back pain when it flares up:

  • Apply heat. Warm, moist heat can help relieve back pain, either at work, or once you’re home, says Dr. Broach. Stash a heating pad near your desk and use it a few times throughout the day.

  • Take over-the-counter medication. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and acetaminophen (Tylenol) can be helpful for back pain. It’s important to make sure that you are safely able to take these medications, based on your medical history.During a flare, try taking a dose on a regular basis, according to directions, for a few days, rather than using it only when your pain becomes unbearable.

  • Schedule some stress relief. Stress is known to make back pain worse, so incorporate your favorite stress-soothing activities into your work routine. Take a short walk during lunch, pop by a coworker’s desk to blow off steam, go to your favorite workout class before or after work, or listen to your favorite playlist or podcast while you work.

When to See a Doctor

Most of the time, back pain resolves on its own. But you should see your doctor if:

  • Pain keeps you up at night or makes it harder to fall asleep 

  • You experience back pain along with weakness in one or both legs

  • Back pain spreads into your lower leg

  • It doesn’t get better after a few weeks

  • Is associated with any changes in bowel or bladder function

Exercises for Back Pain

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Bridge exercises engage the hamstring muscles in your legs, the paraspinal muscles up and down your back, and your core muscles all at the same time, which helps create balance in your low back and pelvis.

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Those are a few gentle exercises from Hinge Health that are commonly used to prevent and treat low back pain. “They stretch and strengthen lower back muscles and they lengthen your hamstrings, which is important because it allows you to shift some of your body weight from your back to your legs,” explains Dr. Broach.

The information contained in these videos is intended to be used for educational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice or treatment for any specific condition. Hinge Health is not your healthcare provider and is not responsible for any injury sustained or exacerbated by your use of or participation in these exercises. Please consult with your healthcare provider with any questions you may have about your medical condition or treatment.

PT Tip: Keep a Yoga Mat Next to Your Desk 

“I always have one right behind me in my office so that I can stretch periodically throughout the day to make sure my lower back muscles don’t get all grumpy,” says Dr. Broach. It’s perfect for doing the above exercises (Cat Cow, Bridge, and Down Dog) throughout the day. It’s also a good idea to stand and stretch once an hour or so. Place your hands on your lower back and gently arch backward.

How Hinge Health Can Help You

If you have joint or muscle pain that makes it hard to move, you can get the relief you’ve been looking for with Hinge Health’s online exercise therapy program.

The best part: You don’t have to leave your home because our program is digital. That means you can easily get the care you need through our app, when and where it works for you.

Through our program, you’ll have access to therapeutic exercises and stretches for your condition. Additionally, you’ll have a personal care team to guide, support, and tailor our program to you.

See if you qualify for Hinge Health and confirm free coverage through your employer or benefit plan here.

This article and its contents are provided for educational and informational purposes only and do not constitute medical advice or professional services specific to you or your medical condition.

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References:

  1. Baradaran Mahdavi, S., Riahi, R., Vahdatpour, B., & Kelishadi, R. (2021). Association between sedentary behavior and low back pain; A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Promotion Perspectives, 11(4), 393–410. doi:10.34172/hpp.2021.50

  2. Chou, L., Brady, S. R. E., Urquhart, D. M., Teichtahl, A. J., Cicuttini, F. M., Pasco, J. A., Brennan-Olsen, S. L., & Wluka, A. E. (2016). The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders. Medicine, 95(15), e3367. doi:10.1097/md.0000000000003367

  3. How to Improve Posture for a Healthy Back. (2019, April 16). Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4485-back-health-and-posture

  4. 5 Ergonomic Tips to Help With Back Pain. (2017, December 19). Penn Medicine. https://www.pennmedicine.org/updates/blogs/musculoskeletal-and-rheumatology/2017/december/5-ergonomic-tips-to-help-with-back-pain#:~:text=5%20ergonomic%20tips%20for%20work&text=Sit%20back%20in%20the%20chair,tablet%20use%20when%20answering%20emails.

  5. Chou, R. (2021, September 20). Low Back Pain in Adults (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/low-back-pain-in-adults-beyond-the-basics

  6. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury. (2021, June 3). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/back-pain/art-20044526

  7. Ergonomics for Prolonged Sitting. UCLA Health. Retrieved from https://www.uclahealth.org/medical-services/spine/patient-resources/ergonomics-prolonged-sitting#:~:text=Never%20slump%20or%20slouch%20in,your%20spine%20and%20lumbar%20discs.&text=Close%20your%20eyes%20while%20sitting,center%20of%20your%20computer%20screen.

  8. Qin, J., Zhang, Y., Wu, L., He, Z., Huang, J., Tao, J., & Chen, L. (2019). Effect of Tai Chi alone or as additional therapy on low back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine, 98(37), e17099. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000017099

  9. Billy, G. G., Lemieux, S. K., & Chow, M. X. (2014). Lumbar Disc Changes Associated with Prolonged Sitting. PM & R : The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 6(9), 790–795. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.02.014

  10. Agarwal, S., Steinmaus, C., & Harris-Adamson, C. (2017). Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ergonomics, 61(4), 538–552. doi:10.1080/00140139.2017.1402960

  11. Black, N. L., Tremblay, M., & Ranaivosoa, F. (2022). Different sit:stand time ratios within a 30-minute cycle change perceptions related to musculoskeletal disorders. Applied Ergonomics, 99, 103605. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103605

  12. Shiri, R., Coggon, D., & Falah-Hassani, K. (2017). Exercise for the Prevention of Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(5), 1093–1101. doi:10.1093/aje/kwx337

  13. Mendonça, C. R., Noll, M., Castro, M. C. R., & Silveira, E. A. (2020). Effects of Nutritional Interventions in the Control of Musculoskeletal Pain: An Integrative Review. Nutrients, 12(10), 3075. doi:10.3390/nu12103075

Table of Contents
What Causes Office Back Pain?How to Prevent Back Pain When You Sit All DayErgonomic Sitting: What Does That Mean?What Else Can Help with Back Pain from Sitting at a Desk?When to See a DoctorPT Tip: Keep a Yoga Mat Next to Your Desk How Hinge Health Can Help YouReferences: