Pelvic Pain: Causes, Prevention, Treatment, and Best Exercises
What’s making your pelvic area hurt? Learn about causes of female pelvic pain, prevention, treatment, and exercises from pelvic floor physical therapists.
Our Hinge Health Experts
Jeni Sepe, PT, DPT
Tamara Grisales, MD
Kandis Daroski, PT, DPT
Pelvic pain, or pain in the lower abdomen, is common in women and can have many causes. It’s important to find out what’s causing your pain so you can treat it and start feeling better.
Your pelvic area houses some of the most important organs in your body, like the ones that help you digest your food and eliminate waste. It’s also where the organs of the female reproductive system are found — your ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes. With everything that’s going on in your pelvic area, it’s understandable to be concerned when you have pelvic pain, especially when it interferes with your daily activities and takes a toll on your quality of life.
While there are many common conditions that can cause pelvic pain (like appendicitis and kidney stones), there are some that are unique to women and people born with vaginal anatomy.
Here, learn more about what causes pelvic pain in women, and how to prevent and treat it — especially with exercises from our Hinge Health pelvic floor physical therapists.
What Is Pelvic Pain?
Pelvic pain is any pain in your lower abdomen between your belly button and your groin, or pelvic area. Acute pelvic pain can be sudden and usually lasts for a short period of time. It can also come and go with your menstrual cycle, sex, or other activities. Chronic pelvic pain is when symptoms last six months or more.
Pelvic Pain Symptoms
Your pelvic area includes many organs, muscles, and other structures, which can make it hard to pinpoint the exact location of (or cause) your pain. Pelvic pain can vary in intensity and includes many different types of pain. Symptoms can include:
Sudden onset of sharp, localized abdominal pain
Pain in your lower abdomen that spreads out across a wide area
Pain that builds slowly and doesn’t go away
Dull ache or pressure
Cramping or throbbing that’s constant or comes and goes with your menstrual cycle
Pain with movement or activities like urination, sex, or inserting a tampon
Twisted or knotted sensation
Severe pelvic pain in women can be a sign of a serious medical condition. If your pain is severe or occurs with other warning signs (see the When to See a Doctor section below), you should see your provider to rule out serious conditions.
Pelvic Pain: A Hinge Health Perspective
Whether you know what’s causing your pelvic symptoms or not, pelvic pain can be scary and overwhelming. If you’re feeling overwhelmed by all the symptoms and causes (which we’ll discuss below), here’s the good news: Pelvic pain is very treatable. Many people significantly improve their symptoms with lifestyle changes and exercises that target the muscles of the pelvic floor and other connected structures. Just know this: Whatever your symptoms are, you're in the right place to get the support you need.
Causes of Pelvic Pain
Many conditions can cause pelvic pain and other bothersome symptoms in women and people born with vaginal anatomy. Some — like appendicitis, kidney stones, and gastrointestinal issues like constipation — can affect both men and women. Pelvic pain in women can have more than one cause, but it is often related to problems with your reproductive organs. Here are some of the most common causes of pelvic pain that are unique to women:
Your Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual cramping is the most common type of pelvic pain in women. It can feel like a muscle spasm or a dull ache and is often accompanied by backache. Menstrual cramps occur when your uterus contracts and sheds its lining. Cramps are usually most severe at the beginning of your period. Over-the-counter medications and home remedies like heating pads are often effective for this type of pain. Hormonal birth control can also make your periods lighter and less painful.
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs on the surface of an ovary. The most common type occurs when your ovary fails to release an egg at ovulation and a cyst forms around it. Cysts can cause pain, pressure, and sometimes bloating. Most ovarian cysts go away on their own. But some can bleed or burst, which can lead to sharp, severe pain that requires medical attention.
Painful ovulation or mittelschmerz (the German word for pain in the middle of your cycle) can occur when an egg is released from your ovary. It usually occurs on just one side of your body. It can feel sharp or dull and the pain typically goes away within a few hours.
Pelvic adhesions, or scar tissue in the pelvic cavity, can occur after an infection or surgery. Pain and other symptoms can occur when scar tissue joins tissues that are normally separate. Surgery is sometimes needed to address adhesions.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive system that can involve your uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs. It can cause aching pain in your lower abdomen. PID can also occur with symptoms like vaginal bleeding or discharge, fever, painful sex, and urinary symptoms. PID is often caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and, if untreated, can lead to infertility.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are caused by viruses and bacteria that are transmitted through sex. The type of pain depends on the type of infection. STIs can cause painful urination, breakthrough vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, and other symptoms.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infections of the urinary system, including your kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs produce symptoms like:
Pelvic pain, especially around your pubic bone
Burning and stinging with urination
A strong urge that doesn’t go away after urination
Urine that is cloudy, strong-smelling, or contains blood
Fever, nausea, vomiting, chills, and back pain if the infection spreads to your kidneys
Sex and Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is when a pregnancy occurs in your fallopian tube instead of inside your uterus. The fallopian tubes can’t expand with the growing pregnancy, leading to severe pain as the tube stretches. If the fallopian tube ruptures, it can lead to life-threatening bleeding. Seek medical care immediately for any severe pain during pregnancy.
Miscarriage or stillbirth is the loss of a pregnancy. Pregnancy loss is very common. As many as 26 percent of all pregnancies end in miscarriage (before 20 weeks). Stillbirth, or loss of a pregnancy after 20 weeks, is far less common. Severe cramps are a common symptom of both types of pregnancy loss, along with vaginal bleeding, discharge, and back pain. Seek medical care immediately if you have severe pain or any of these symptoms during pregnancy.
Pain with sex, or dyspareunia, can have a variety of causes. It can be related to a vaginal infection or a UTI. Some STIs can cause inflammation of your cervix, the lower part of your uterus, that can lead to pain with deep penetration. Many women have pain when resuming sex after having a baby. Painful sex can be due to thinning of vaginal tissues with menopause and a lack of vaginal lubrication. It can also be related to overly tight or inflamed pelvic floor muscles or pain related to sexual trauma.
Pelvic pain in pregnancy is common and usually not a cause for concern. Your bones, joints, and ligaments have to stretch and adjust to accommodate the growing pregnancy. Round ligament pain is a common and normal pregnancy symptom that can lead to sharp pain or pressure in the hip and pelvic area with sudden movements. Later in pregnancy, you might experience pelvic pain with Braxton-Hicks contractions. These practice contractions help your uterus prepare for the contractions of labor. See your doctor if you are concerned about any pain during pregnancy.
Endometriosis occurs when tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside of the uterus. During your cycle, it responds to hormones like uterine tissue, so it can cramp and bleed during your period, leading to pain and inflammation. It can also cause scarring that can lead to infertility.
Uterine fibroids are an overgrowth of muscle cells in the wall of your uterus. Fibroids can grow into the uterine cavity. They can also extend into and outside the wall of your uterus. Fibroids are usually painless and noncancerous. But they can sometimes cause pelvic pain, pressure, or backache.
Cancers of the reproductive system can occur in the cervix, uterus, ovaries, or other structures. Cancer can cause pelvic and lower back pain, painful sex, and other symptoms:
A lump or swelling
Unusually heavy vaginal bleeding
Bleeding after menopause
Changes in vaginal discharge
Blood in your urine
Other Pelvic Pain Causes
Irritation of nerves in your pelvis can occur after an injury or as a result of pressure or inflammation. Nerve irritation can produce many different types of pain, but often feels like burning, stabbing, or shooting pain.
Ovarian torsion, or a twisted ovary, can occur when your ovary becomes twisted around a ligament or other connecting tissues. The twisting can cut off the blood supply to your ovary and cause severe pain. Ovarian torsion requires immediate treatment to prevent the loss of your ovary.
Pain related to stress or psychological trauma. There is a strong correlation between pelvic pain, stress, and sexual trauma. And pelvic pain from other causes can be complicated by stress and trauma. If you have experienced sexual trauma, talk to your healthcare provider about seeking mental health or counseling care.
Pelvic organ prolapse can occur when your pelvic floor muscles and other tissues in your pelvis weaken. This can allow organs in your pelvis to move from their original position and put pressure on other structures. While prolapse isn't typically painful, it can cause pelvic pressure and heaviness. As many as 50% of women have some degree of prolapse. It's more common among older women who have given birth and people with a family history.
Issues with muscles and ligaments in your pelvic floor. Your pelvic floor is made up of layers of muscles, ligaments, and fascia (connective tissue). These tissues stretch from your pubic bone in front of your body back to your tailbone in the back. Your pelvic floor muscles can become tight, inflamed, weak, or stop working as they should. This can lead to pelvic pain, painful sex, and urinary issues like incontinence, or leaking urine.
Vulvodynia is pain, burning, or irritation of the area around your vagina, or vulva, without a clear cause. It can be constant or can occur only with touch or pressure.
When to See a Doctor
Many causes of pelvic pain in women are not serious, but some conditions require immediate care. See your doctor if your pain is severe or doesn’t go away after several days. See a doctor if you notice pain with any of the following:
Foul-smelling or bloody urine
Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
Heavy or irregular vaginal bleeding
Difficulty or pain with urination
Difficulties with bowel movements, including constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating, or rectal bleeding
Signs of an infection, including fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting
“It can be hard to know if pelvic pain is serious. In most cases of mild pain, it’s probably not,” says urogynecologist Tamara Grisales, MD, an expert physician at Hinge Health. “If you have severe pain, irregular bleeding, or other red flag symptoms and your pain doesn’t respond to simple measures, it’s important to see your doctor for an exam. They can help you decide if more testing or any treatment is needed.”
Diagnosing Pelvic Pain
Pelvic pain can be difficult to diagnose. Your provider will start with your symptoms, medical history, and a physical exam. They may ask:
When did your pain start?
Where is your pain located?
What’s the severity or nature of your pain (sharp, aching, dull, etc.)?
When does your pain occur (menstrual cycle, urination, sex)?
For how long have you had pain?
Diagnostic tests can help your provider identify the cause of your pelvic pain. Your doctor may order tests including:
Blood tests to identify an infection
Urinalysis to screen for urinary tract infection (UTI)
Vaginal or cervical cultures to identify infection or signs of cancer
Stool samples to look for blood in your stool
X-rays of the abdomen and pelvis use radiation to produce images of your bones and organs
Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to create images of your internal organs
CT scans use X-rays to create computerized views of your bones and soft tissues
MRI uses a powerful magnetic field to create detailed images of your internal organs
Laparoscopy uses a laparoscope (a thin tube with a light and a camera) inserted through your abdominal wall. The laparoscope lets your doctor see pelvic structures and look for signs of infection.
Colonoscopy uses a long, flexible tube inserted through your rectum to examine your colon.
Hysteroscopy uses a thin, lighted scope inserted through your vagina to view the inside of your uterus.
Pelvic Pain Prevention Tips
Pelvic pain can have many causes and not all pain can be prevented. Some lifestyle habits can help reduce your chances of experiencing pelvic pain.
Schedule routine examinations with your primary care provider ob-gyn to identify problems before they lead to pain.
Eat a nutritious, high-fiber diet. The fiber in fresh fruits and vegetables can help prevent constipation, which can worsen some pelvic pain conditions.
Exercise regularly to keep your joints and muscles strong and flexible. Regular exercise can also help reduce menstrual cramp intensity.
Practice safe sex to avoid contracting STIs that can lead to pelvic pain.
Urinate after sex to flush bacteria out of your urinary tract and prevent UTIs.
Practice stress management with breathing and relaxation exercises to keep your stress at manageable levels.
Establish healthy sleep routines to make sure your body has time to rest, replenish, and heal.
Treatment for Pelvic Pain
Treatment for pelvic pain will depend on the cause and the nature of your symptoms. The following tips from our Hinge Health physical therapists and medical doctors can provide relief for pelvic pain.
Medications, such as over-the-counter pain relievers and prescription medications (such as hormonal birth control) to treat menstrual cramps and endometriosis pain
Home remedies like heating pads, ice packs, baths, or massage
Lifestyle strategies like relaxation techniques and improved sleep habits
Behavioral modifications, including diet changes and smoking cessation
Mental health support, including cognitive behavioral therapy
Physical therapy and exercise therapy
Steroid and anesthetic injections
Physical Therapy and Exercise for Pelvic Pain
Regular exercise and physical therapy can help prevent and treat some types of pelvic pain and other pelvic symptoms.
Some pelvic pain conditions are caused by problems with your pelvic floor. Your pelvic floor is made up of layers of muscles, ligaments, and fascia (connective tissue) that stretch from your pubic bone in front of your body to your tailbone in the back. They can become tight, inflamed, weak, or stop working as they should.
Pelvic floor physical therapy for pelvic pain and other symptoms is a comprehensive treatment that includes education, behavioral and lifestyle strategies, movement and exercise, and manual therapy. You can see a physical therapist in person or use a program like Hinge Health to access a PT who specializes in pelvic health via telehealth/video visit.
Depending on your symptoms, a pelvic floor physical therapist may recommend:
Stretching exercises to relax tense muscles and increase flexibility
Pelvic floor exercises
Whole-body exercises to strengthen areas that support your pelvic floor
Stress management techniques
Other treatments, including internal massage and vaginal training devices
Many women with pelvic floor-related pain see improvement after a few weeks of pelvic floor physical therapy. Ask your doctor if pelvic floor physical therapy could be right for you. “Once your provider rules out serious conditions, consider pelvic floor physical therapy for symptoms like pelvic pain, pressure, incontinence, urinary urgency, and frequency, or painful sex,” says Jennifer Sepe, PT, DPT, a physical therapist at Hinge Health. “These symptoms can often be related to problems with your pelvic floor. The good news is that they are also very treatable — with approaches like movement, exercise, and lifestyle modifications.”
Exercises for Pelvic Pain
Movement and exercise can be one of the most effective parts of pelvic pain treatment. Low-impact exercises stretch, strengthen, and stabilize the structures that support your pelvic floor. Exercise can increase your mobility while decreasing pelvic pain and other symptoms.
Surgery for Pelvic Pain
Surgery usually isn’t needed to address pelvic pain. Most people can get pelvic pain relief from targeted exercise, stretching, medications, lifestyle and behavioral modifications, and other conservative treatments. There are, however, some instances when surgery is advised. If pelvic pain causes you to change your daily activities or it takes a toll on your quality of life, your doctor may suggest surgery. Pelvic pain surgeries can include procedures to remove endometrial tissue, uterine fibroids, or pelvic organs and many other procedures.
Talk to your doctor about whether you’re a good candidate for surgery.
PT Tip: Breathing Is Key
“I can’t say enough about the power of diaphragmatic breathing to help manage pelvic pain and symptoms,” says Dr. Sepe. “It’s not a flashy or complicated exercise. It just takes time and intentional focus to target the areas of tightness and pain.” Diaphragmatic breathing can help you gradually improve the brain-body connection to those areas to address nearly all types of pelvic pain. And it can help reduce the inflammation and muscle tension that’s at the root of your symptoms.
Learn More About Hinge Health for Pelvic Pain Relief
We’ve got a full team of clinical experts to help you move past your pain. Click here to see if you're eligible to join our free digital clinic for back and joint pain.
This article and its contents are provided for educational and informational purposes only and do not constitute medical advice or professional services specific to you or your medical condition.
Get a Hinge Health care plan designed for you
How many women have pelvic pain? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pelvicpain/conditioninfo/howmany#:~:text=Worldwide%2C%20the%20rates%20of%20chronic
Dydyk, A. M., & Gupta, N. (2022). Chronic Pelvic Pain. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.
Gin, G. T., Rosenblum, E., Wilkinson, L. D., & Brady, P. H. (2022). Female Pelvic Conditions: Chronic Pelvic Pain. FP essentials, 515, 11–19.
Chronic Pelvic Pain. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/chronic-pelvic-pain
Dugas, C., & Slane, V. H. (2022). Miscarriage. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.
Garza-Leal, J. G., Sosa-Bravo, F. J., Garza-Marichalar, J. G., Soto-Quintero, G., Castillo-Saenz, L., & Fernández-Zambrano, S. (2021). Sexual abuse and chronic pelvic pain in a gynecology outpatient clinic. A pilot study. International urogynecology journal, 32(5), 1285–1291. doi:10.1007/s00192-021-04772-4
Armour, M., Ee, C. C., Naidoo, D., Ayati, Z., Chalmers, K. J., Steel, K. A., … Delshad, E. (2019). Exercise for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). doi:10.1002/14651858.cd004142.pub4
Bradley, M. H., Rawlins, A., & Brinker, C. A. (2017). Physical Therapy Treatment of Pelvic Pain. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America, 28(3), 589–601. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2017.03.009
van Reijn-Baggen, D. A., Han-Geurts, I., Voorham-van der Zalm, P. J., Pelger, R., Hagenaars-van Miert, C., & Laan, E. (2022). Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy for Pelvic Floor Hypertonicity: A Systematic Review of Treatment Efficacy. Sexual medicine reviews, 10(2), 209–230. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2021.03.002
Leonardi, M., Armour, M., Gibbons, T., Cave, A., As-Sanie, S., Condous, G., & Cheong, Y. C. (2021). Surgical interventions for the management of chronic pelvic pain in women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 12(12), CD008212. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008212.pub2